Facilities Guideline Plan for the 21st
November 20, 1998
Land Use Concepts
One of the most
important factors in a campus master plan is the manner in which campus
land uses are organized. At Seattle Pacific University, the incremental
growth of the campus has resulted in a somewhat random land use pattern,
with some academic buildings (science and art) dispersed at peripheral
locations. Student housing, although primarily located on the west
side of the campus, is also included in mixed use buildings located
in the central academic area and on sites located several blocks from
the perceived campus. In some areas awaiting development, the land
uses consist of a mixture of parking lots, small office buildings
and housing. This random land use pattern results in less interaction
between faculty and students located in dispersed locations, contributes
to inefficiencies in University operations and weakens the overall
image of the campus.
to the campus land uses are possible, but expensive. They are likely
to occur over a long period, as new buildings are constructed and
existing buildings are demolished or renovated. The following principles
are recommended as guidelines to help shape future decisions regarding
campus land uses:
- Land use patterns
should support and enhance the University’s mission and the overall
goals and objectives of the Facilities Guideline Plan for the 21st
- To the extent
feasible, land uses of similar or complementary uses should not
be separated by arterial streets or other man-made or natural barriers
that would impede pedestrian access.
- Functions and
facilities should be located to minimize the need for travel by
vehicles on campus.
for education and research should be concentrated in a central
academic zone. Faculty offices should be organized within this
zone in a manner that encourages both intra- and inter-disciplinary
- A mix of unrelated
uses should be avoided in individual campus buildings if the mix
of use results in significant adverse impacts (e.g. noise or inefficient
energy use) that cannot be successfully mitigated.
- Lecture halls
and core classrooms should be located in central locations to minimize
walking distances between classes, but should be distributed to
avoid overcrowding in individual buildings.
- The library,
commons, and most student services facilities should be located
in the campus core area, but other spaces for relaxation, meeting,
dining and study should be distributed throughout the campus.
- Most residential
facilities should be located on the periphery of the academic core
in buildings that do not include a mixture of unrelated uses. However,
some instructional facilities may be included in residential buildings
to further "living/learning" objectives.
- Student apartments
should be located near the periphery of the campus including multi-family
areas outside the campus boundaries that are adjacent to or within
convenient walking distance from the campus core.
and support services uses that require frequent access by students
and faculty should be located in or near the campus core, while
other administrative and support services uses should be located
at or near the periphery of the campus.
- Cultural facilities,
including art galleries and theaters, should be located on sites
that are easily accessible to the public.
- Athletic and
recreation facilities should be concentrated near Third Avenue
West and West Nickerson Street but should be supplemented with
facilities located near student housing and off-campus (e.g. Interbay).
- Parking should
be located in lots and garages on the periphery of the campus in
locations with convenient vehicular access.
uses of a public or commercial nature or commercial uses that would
enhance the campus and community environment and not require a
University subsidy should be provided on the ground floor of some
of the buildings or parking structures facing West Nickerson Street.
uses and buildings located on the campus periphery and off-campus
should be compatible in size and nature with the surrounding uses.
- The University
should be proactive in seeking joint development opportunities
that support both University and community objectives, including
joint development of property located near the campus, but outside
the campus boundaries.
of some campus uses to off-campus sites should be considered as
a means of limiting on-campus development needs and operations
impacts, provided that the decentralized programs or operations
could effectively and efficiently provide services from an off-campus
portions of the campus should be developed more densely to accommodate
growth while limiting the need to acquire additional property.
Figure 1, on
the following page, provides an illustration of primary use zones
based on the above principles. The zone designations indicate the
primary use(s), but are not intended to exclude mixes of uses that
may be desirable.
Parking, Circulation and Access Principles
parking, circulation and access are basic elements of any campus master
plan. A transportation management program and circulation and parking
plans are required elements of a City Major Institution Master Plan.
In addition, specific code requirements must be met for persons with
disabilities, which should be addressed on a campus-wide basis.
Most campuses have
developed in a manner in which pedestrians are given the highest priority
for access. This is the case at Seattle Pacific University, where
street vacations have made possible the development of several auto-free
pedestrian zones, where only service vehicles are allowed. However,
many City streets remain, including several arterial streets, which
are dangerous for pedestrians to cross. The pedestrian circulation
system and access for the disabled are also less than ideal because
of complications resulting from the steep grades that must be traversed,
especially between the upper and lower campuses.
Access to the campus
for commuters and parking for commuters, resident students and visitors
are also significant issues that must be addressed in a campus master
plan. Currently, the University uses on-street parking to meet a substantial
portion of its peak parking needs, which has resulted in citizen complaints
and safety and security issues. Seattle Pacific University’s current
transportation management program, which includes transit subsidies
and incentives for ride-sharing, has reduced the demand for parking
somewhat. Some improvements to the transportation management program
may be possible to further reduce the reliance on single occupancy
vehicle commuting and parking, but it is clear that additional on-campus
parking will be required. This parking will be necessary, not only
to reduce the reliance on on-street parking and meet the additional
demands resulting from the growth of the University, but also to replace
parking that will be lost through campus development.
principles are recommended as guidelines to make improvements to campus
transportation, parking, circulation and access:
- The highest
priority for access to and on the campus should be given to pedestrians,
followed by bicyclists and transit.
- The current
transportation management program should be continued and improved
to decrease the percentage of commuters who travel to campus by
single occupancy vehicles.
- A transit center
should be established in the vicinity of West Nickerson Street
and Third Avenue West, in a location that does not conflict with
pedestrian movement or detract from the appearance of the campus.
- The campus
circulation system and location of land uses, including parking,
should be organized to maximize access to programs and services
by all individuals without use of private automobiles.
rights-of-way in high volume vehicular zones should provide for
clear visual definition of pedestrian crossings. Methods of improving
pedestrian safety at the Third Avenue West pedestrian crossing
of West Nickerson Street should be reviewed.
street vacations should be considered to increase the extent of
the campus area that is free of pedestrian and vehicle conflicts.
When streets with substantial pedestrian use (e.g. West Bertona
Street) cannot be vacated, traffic calming measures should be developed
to reduce speeds and increase pedestrian safety.
- A high priority
should be given to campus security, including the provision of
adequate lighting. All campus streets, pathways and parking areas
should be well lighted, with higher intensity lighting provided
at bus stops, pedestrian crosswalks and other areas with a high
potential for accidents between automobiles, pedestrians and bicyclists.
- The dimensions
of circulation elements should be adjusted to reflect the volumes
of pedestrian, bicycle and vehicle travel, providing a clear hierarchy
of routes that support a memorable visual sequence of movement
through the campus.
- A well-defined
campus entrance should be developed, with convenient access to
short-term parking for campus visitors.
- Entrance and
directional signs should be provided in locations necessary to
direct visitors to visitor parking and major campus destinations.
- Access for
persons with disabilities should be provided to all campus sectors
and major buildings. In particular, the access between the upper
and lower campus should be made more convenient for wheelchair
- Bicycle parking
should be provided in convenient and secure locations, but bicycling
between campus buildings on major pedestrian routes should be discouraged
- Parking lots
and garages should be distributed in peripheral locations to avoid
conflicts with pedestrian circulation.
- When possible,
access to parking lots and garages should be located on arterial
streets or on local streets outside of areas zoned for single family
- Enough on-campus
parking should be provided to meet City code requirements, reduce
the amount of university-related on-street parking, meet additional
demand resulting from enrollment and resident student growth, and
replace parking lost through campus development.
- A substantial
amount of campus parking should be provided in parking structures
or basement parking garages designed to provide a high level of
security for their users. The total campus land area used for parking
(currently approximately 20 percent) should be reduced.
- Campus buildings
should be provided with functional service areas in unobtrusive
- Parking for
service vehicles should be distributed throughout the campus in
locations that discourage parking on walkways and landscaped areas.
and Design Principles
The image of the
Seattle Pacific University campus should strongly reflect the University’s
core values and beliefs. The buildings and grounds of the campus should
express the University’s quality, tradition and mission. A strong
and positive image is important to attract and retain quality faculty
and students and to maintain positive relationships with the alumni
and the community.
The image provided
by the current campus is a mixture of identifiable architectural styles.
There are three image districts or design districts on campus. The
lower campus, with its stately, mature trees surrounded by traditional,
historic buildings provides the image of a small, sleepy college campus,
steeped in tradition. Despite its strong sense of place, it is perceived
by some as being somewhat deserted and lacking in vitality. The upper
campus, focused around Martin Square with modernist and contemporary
buildings using crisp lines and liberal amounts of glass, provides
the image of a much larger institution, energized with student activity.
Although the Pavilion and Wallace Athletic Field have a major presence,
the campus area at West Nickerson presently lacks a strong campus
image and appears to be separated from the main campus areas. University
facilities east of Third Avenue West have virtually no visual relationship
to the main campus areas and are probably viewed by many as being
"off-campus". The image and appearance of the campus suffers
from the lack of discernible entrances and visual cues to mark the
The campus image
and appearance can and should be improved as new development occurs.
Each new development project should make a positive contribution.
The following principles are recommended as guidelines to make improvements
to the image and appearance of the campus and maintain the positive
elements, which currently exist:
- The campus
should provide the image of a distinctive Christian academic community
located in a Northwest setting.
- Alexander and
Peterson Halls should be maintained as historic campus buildings.
Their prominent locations should be respected by future campus
- The "Loop"
area of the lower campus should be preserved as a historic open
space, but should be modified to improve pedestrian circulation
and provide additional opportunities for informal recreation activities.
The "Loop" area should continue to be framed by large
trees, with the protection of existing mature trees given a high
priority in the siting of future buildings or additions, while
recognizing that some trees will require removal or replacement
because of disease or construction impacts.
- Martin Square
should be retained as an active open space area serving as the
core of upper campus activities.
- The connection
between the upper and lower campus should be strengthened through
the demolition of Marston Hall and redevelopment of the portion
of its site adjacent to Martin Square as an open space and pedestrian
- When feasible,
City streets should be vacated and/or modified as pedestrian-friendly
areas, designed to minimize the visual and functional separation
between campus sectors.
- The temporary
buildings and parking lots in the campus area between West Bertona
Street and West Nickerson Street should be demolished and replaced
with permanent buildings, open space and landscaping designed to
provide stronger links with the upper and lower campus areas.
- The campus
area east of Third Avenue West should be developed in a manner
that provides an image of the area as an integral part of the campus.
- A major campus
entry, or sense of entry, should be developed in a high visibility
area and secondary campus entries should be more clearly defined.
- The campus
should be better defined with street trees, landscaping, lighting
and signage. The definition between the campus and the surrounding
community need not be distinct in campus areas that incorporate
non-university uses in mixed-use structures (eg. along West Nickerson
- Building heights
and scale should be compatible with that of adjacent permanent
campus buildings. The height and potential for view blockage of
adjacent non-university buildings should also be considered in
determining campus building heights.
- Building styles
and materials may vary between design districts but should relate
to the context of adjacent permanent buildings. New buildings and
additions should be of appropriate form, material and type to reflect
the importance of their place within the campus.
- Campus open
space and landscaping should be used to unify and beautify the
campus and provide outdoor areas for study, worship, ceremonies,
relaxation, socialization and recreation. Open space areas should
be provided in convenient locations for a wide variety of recreational
activities, ranging from exercise and spontaneous play involving
only a few individuals, to intramural and intercollegiate sports.
- Permanent or
long-term temporary surface parking lots should be appropriately
landscaped to minimize their visual impacts.
- Campus development
should provide for public art, both within buildings and on the
- Campus signage
should be provided in a manner that is visually consistent and
unified to support the image of the University as a single entity.
Signs, campus maps, and other directional features should indicate
clearly how to find campus buildings, parking areas, and facilities
commonly used by those not familiar with the campus.
- Campus development
and operations should reinforce the University’s leadership in
environmental stewardship and responsibility.
- The University
should continue to provide adequate lighting for security functions.
Architectural lighting should also be designed to highlight and
accentuate important campus features such as landscaping, loop
trees, building elements, and art.
- The importance
of trees as a major contributor to the attractiveness of the campus
environment should be recognized, with the protection of existing
trees and addition of new trees considered in the siting and design
of future campus facilities.
- To minimize
visual clutter, aboveground wiring for power and communications
should be discouraged on campus and within City street right-of-ways
adjacent to campus. The University should encourage City Light
and other public utilities to locate their wiring below grade when
new or replacement facilities are necessary.